Friday, May 22, 2020

Piagets Stages Of Psychological Development - 1623 Words

When children age, not only are their bodies altered, but their minds and thought processes change as well. Additionally, a child’s abilities and goals largely have to do with what stage of childhood he or she is in. In order to more accurately understand the vast differences between children of varying ages, it is imperative to observe several age groups in the same setting. While babysitting, I was able to observe various marked differences between three children, each of which are in different stages of development. Namely, these variations became apparent through the interactions between seven year old Noelle and her neighbors, four year old Helena and two year old Perry. Among the apparent distinctions observed, the following will be discussed: play, temperament and attachment, coordination and information processing, language learning, self-awareness maturation, Piaget’s stages of cognitive development, and Erikson’s stages of psychological development. It is important to comprehend each of these theories and constructs, and the best way to gain a full understanding is to see how each theory changes and develops through the different stages of childhood. While babysitting Noelle on a Wednesday afternoon in October, she decided she wanted to play with her neighbors, Helena and Perry. Within the three hours that they played together, the children primarily participated in cooperative play because they worked together with shared materials to create scenarios to act outShow MoreRelatedPsychosocial And Cognitive Learning Theories1354 Words   |  6 PagesPsychosocial and Cognitive learning are just a few of the theories that describe the makeup of human development and behavior. Psychosocial theories explore the relationship between the social environment and an individual’s psychological condition (Crawford and Hawford, 2011). Whilst Cognitive Learning Theory explains certain behavioral responses of people based on their understanding and mental representation of what is happening at the present time. This theory also explores a person’s everydayRead MoreJean Piaget s Influence On Children961 Words   |  4 Pageschildho od lacked normalcy due, in large part, to his mother’s psychological issues. The abnormality of his home sparked an interest in Piaget to learn and discover outside of regular school curriculum. During his elementary school years, Piaget implored Paul Godet, the director at the Neuchatel museum of Naturel History, to allow him the pleasure of studying â€Å"the museum’s mollusk collection after hours† (Brainerd, 1996, 191). Godet became Piaget’s tutor, teaching him the methods of classification. PiagetRead MorePiaget s Stages Theory And Evaluate Its Appropriateness For Explaining How Children Develop Mentally1726 Words   |  7 PagesThe aim of this essay is to briefly explain Piaget’s Stage Theory and evaluate its appropriateness for explaining how children develop mentally. His theory states that children develop in four different stages from the ages 0-12. There are varying sub-stages for these and each has its own description with experiments to test which stage an infant is in. Although Piaget is a credited theorist this particular theory is often criticised and this essay will explore the reasons for this as well as providingRead MoreDevelopmental Theory Essay1726 Words   |  7 PagesShortcomings Of Piaget’s Theory. This essay will be summarising the contributions and shortcomings of the Cognitive-Developmental theory and firstly explore the background and key concept’s of Piaget’s work behind child development. Secondly Piaget’s ideas about cognitive change and the four stages of development from birth which are the sensorimotor stage, the pre-operational stage, the concrete operational stage and the formal operational stage and how this impacts development. Thirdly the mainRead MoreThe Sensorimotor Stage Of Piaget s Developmental Stages1618 Words   |  7 PagesAn Analysis of the Sensorimotor Stage of Piaget’s Developmental Stages in the Context of the â€Å"Levtex Baby Night Owl Musical Mobile† Introduction: This psychological study will define Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stage in the context of a children’s toy entitled: â€Å"Levtex Baby Night Owl Musical Mobile.† An analysis of the child’s perception of this toy will defined through the sensory impressions during the infantile stage. The sensorimotor stage is the stage from birth to 2 years of age, which definesRead MoreThe Theory Of Human Development Theory1642 Words   |  7 PagesHuman development theories are theories intended to account for how and why people become, as they are. These theories provide the framework to clarify and organize existing observations and to try to explain and predict human behavior. It is important to recognize the complexity of human development and the theories that explain human development. (Berger, pg. 23). The three theories that have influenced by development are Jean Piaget’s Cognitive Theory, Abraham Maslow’s Humanism and Erik Erikson’sRead MoreCust omized learning Theory: Annotated Bibliography1681 Words   |  7 Pagespsychoanalysis, human development, children, leaders and moral matters. Erikson social theory discusses about the stages of human development and the impact of culture and society on the developmental process. Erikson talks about identity crisis among the adolescents, as they try to evaluate, identify and select what they want for their future. Erikson theory also talks about the stages of life. As a child develops, he/she passes through several developmental stages, with each stage determining the futureRead MoreAlbert Bandura s Social Learning Theory1503 Words   |  7 PagesBandura’s Social Learning Theory with Piaget’s Cognitive Theory. compare and contrast Albert Bandura’s Social Learning Theory with Piaget’s Cognitive Theory. How applicable is the Social learning Theory to the Zambian Educational system. Both Albert Bandura and Jean Piaget were psychologists who contributed greatly in the field of psychology. This implies that there are some similarities and differences between Albert Bandura’s Social learning theories with Piaget’s cognitive theory. On the other handRead MoreSimilarities Between Piaget And Vygotsky And Cognitive Development953 Words   |  4 Pagesa remarkable influence on development and learning. Second, this essay will examine Piaget and Vygotsky’s background, each hypothesis as it relates to cognitive development and education, the similarities and differences, the impact of having better insight into and understanding the concept of learning. Developmental science involves looking at the entire realm of human thought, behavior, and expression (Steinberg, Bornstein, Vandell Rook, 2011). Cognitive development entails qualitative changesRead MoreJean Piaget s Influence On Children s Development995 Words   |  4 PagesJean Piaget’s P reoperational Stage greatly contributes to the cognitive development in children. The main area in the preoperational stage is make-believe play. Piaget believed that when children have make-believe playtime they are exercising and enhancing newly required representational schemes. Make-believe play is very important in children’s development because it gives a child the opportunity to engage in problem-solving, communication, and empathy. Make-believe play also encourages imagination

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Difficult Life for Woman in the Victorian Era in A Doll...

A Doll House showed how women were treated unfairly and unequally. Nora, Anne Marie, and Ms. Linde were examples of women in the world during that time period. Nora was an example of what became the start of the women’s liberation period. Henrik Ibsen showed a lot of modern realism by bringing out the struggles of women using these three characters. Life in the Victorian Era was very difficult for women. Nora was the main character with struggles. From the beginning, she had problems of being treated as an equal. Nora explains to Torvald how she has lived her life just doing what the men in her life say. She says, â€Å"When I was at home with papa, he told me his opinion about everything, and so I had the same opinions; and if I differed†¦show more content†¦She took the job of taking care of little Nora so that she could make it in society. Back in that era, it was hard for women to find a job. The only jobs offered to women were nanny, maid and teacher. Her character showed how controversy it was for women to make mistakes, how it was hard for them to bounce back from it and how hard it was for her to get a job. Ms. Linde was a character that struggled a lot just to make it. Ms. Linde had to sacrifice love for money, so that she could take care of her brothers and dying mother. She married a rich man, so that she could provide for her mother and younger brothers. Ibsen showed how many women sacrificed true love to be able to have a stable life. Once her husband died, she was left with no money causing her to struggle on her own. She spent a lot of time trying to search for jobs and when she got jobs, they were hard jobs that didn’t pay her much. She struggled a lot more than Nora. She even tells Nora, â€Å"How kind you are Nora...for you know so little of the burdens and troubles of life...My dear! Small household cares and that sort of thing!--You are a child, Nora. Even after her brothers grew up, they just abandoned her to take care of her own family. She spent much of her life struggling because of her gender. Ms. Linde’s character showed the difficulties of women having a career, how women sacrificed their wants to provide the needs of their family, and it also showed how men looked down upon women by notShow MoreRelatedHenrik Ibsen s A Doll s House1231 Words   |  5 Pages A Doll’s House is a play by Henrik Ibsen about the liberation of the protagonist, Nora, from a toxic and oppressive relationship in the Victorian Era. Based on a real friend of Ibsen, Nora portrays a seemingly childish and bubbly persona, caged by noble sacrifices and a web of innocent lies. Manipulative and careful, she works furtively to solve all of her problems independently. This contrasts the view her husband has of her as his little doll. He suppresses her freedom of speech, thought, and

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Using Internet Behavior to Deliver Relevant Television Commercials Free Essays

string(82) " search process for low-involvement products has an immediate purchasing horizon\." INTMAR-00124; No. of pages: 11; 4C: Available online at www. sciencedirect. We will write a custom essay sample on Using Internet Behavior to Deliver Relevant Television Commercials or any similar topic only for you Order Now com Journal of Interactive Marketing xx (2013) xxx – xxx www. elsevier. com/locate/intmar Using Internet Behavior to Deliver Relevant Television Commercials Steven Bellman a,? Jamie Murphy b, d Shiree Treleaven-Hassard a James O’Farrell c Lili Qiu c Duane Varan a a Audience Research Labs, Murdoch University, 90 South Street, Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia Australian School of Management, Level 1, 641 Wellington Street, Perth, WA 6000, Australia Business School, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia d Curtin Graduate School of Business, 78 Murray Street, Perth, WA 6000, Australia b c Abstract Consumer footprints left on the Internet help advertisers show consumers relevant Web ads, which increase awareness and click-throughs. This â€Å"proof of concept† experiment illustrates how Internet behavior can identify relevant television commercials that increase ad-effectiveness by raising attention and ad exposure. Product involvement and prior brand exposure, however, complicate effective Internet-targeting. Ad relevance matters more for low-involvement products, which have a short pre-purchase search process. For the same reason, using Web browsing behavior to make inferences about current ad relevance is more accurate for low-involvement products. Prior brand exposure reduces information-value, even for relevant commercials, and therefore dampens ad relevance’s effect on attention and ad exposure.  © 2013 Direct Marketing Educational Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Consumer search behavior; Advertising; Ad relevance; Product involvement; Behavioral targeting; Attention; Ad avoidance; Television; Internet; Experiment; Heart rate Introduction Television, declining in value for advertisers in recent years, is shrinking as a mass medium due to the proliferation of networks and consequent audience fragmentation. At the same time, digital video recorders (DVRs) simplify TV ad avoidance (Wilbur 2008). Finally, advertising budgets are shifting to other media such as the Internet, where interest-based targeting has increased banner ad effectiveness by 65% (Goldfarb and Tucker 2011). Addressability, heralded decades ago, uses technology to track customer preferences and subsequently tailor advertising (Blattberg and Deighton 1991). Sending ads only to interested households improves advertising’s value for consumers by increasing its relevance, and for advertisers by reducing wastage (Gal-Or and Gal-Or 2005; Gal-Or et al. 2006; Iyer, Soberman, and Villas-Boas 2005). Advertising addressability ? Corresponding author. E-mail addresses: s. bellman@murdoch. edu. au (S. Bellman), jamie. perth@gmail. com (J. Murphy), treleaven-hassard@audiencelabs. com (S. Treleaven-Hassard), jamesofarrell@hotmail. com (J. O’Farrell), lili. qiu@uwa. edu. au (L. Qiu), varan@audiencelabs. com (D. Varan). based on consumer Web behavior could apply to other media nd devices such as television, smart phones, tablet devices and satellite radio (Shkedi 2010). Although search engine keywords and online social network data could augment targeting based on Web browsing behavior (Delo 2012; Jansen and Mullen 2008; Jansen et al. 2009), this addressable advertising â€Å"proof of concept† paper uses solely Web browsing behavio r. Currently, TV advertisers target relevant commercials based on location, lifestyle and purchasing information (Marcus and Walpert 2007). A cable company, for instance, might use subscriber information to send different ads to different ethnic groups (Vascellaro 2011b). But information in these databases can be months or years old. Current product and brand interest based on Internet behavior could add a new layer to a targeting database. Nearly all (85%) of the United States population are Internet users (Pew Internet and American Life Project 2012), leaving digital footprints that suggest product interest. Cable companies that package cable and broadband Internet services, Comcast for example, could align household Internet and TV-viewing data to increase the relevance of marketing communication. The basic intuition behind targeting TV ads based on Web rowsing behavior is that time spent browsing pages in a 1094-9968/$ -see front matter  © 2013 Direct Marketing Educational Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. http://dx. doi. org/10. 1016/j. intmar. 2012. 12. 001 Please cite this article as: Steven Bellman, et al. , Using Internet Behavior to Deliver Relevant Television Commercials, Journal of Interactive Marketing (20 13), http:// dx. doi. org/10. 1016/j. intmar. 2012. 12. 001 S. Bellman et al. / Journal of Interactive Marketing xx (2013) xxx–xxx 2 certain product category increases interest in commercials for brands in that category. This intuition needs empirical testing, and the literature on consumer search suggests that differences among product categories may complicate applying this intuition (Richins and Bloch 1986). This paper opens with our conceptual framework, which distinguishes ad relevance from product involvement (Batra and Ray 1983). Consumers tend to use an ongoing search process (Bloch and Richins 1983) for high-involvement products; buying the wrong brand entails greater financial, social, or psychological risks than for low-involvement products (Rossiter and Percy 997). Internet shopping strategies differ, therefore, between high- and low-involvement products (Moe 2003). These differences in involvement, along with prior brand exposure, lead to four hypotheses about the effects of TV ad relevance discovered via Web-browsing behavior. After a discussion of the methodology and results, the paper closes with implications, limitations and future research avenues. Conceptual Framework Ad Relevance and the Consumer Search Process Advertising has relevance before, during, and after purchase (Vakratsas and Ambler 1999). Consumer pre-purchase search has two phases, exploratory and goal-directed search (Janiszewski 1998). Consumer information needs change from generic product information (e. g. , hotels) to brand-specific information (e. g. , Hilton), including advertising by these brands (Rutz and Bucklin 2011). In St. Elmo Lewis’ classic AIDA model (Strong 1925), exploratory search begins with awareness; consumers first recognize their need for a product. As interest grows, they explore options in the category and seek information from friends and the media, including the Internet. In the later oal-directed search phase, they desire a particular product or brand. Finally, they put that desire into action and buy a specific brand. Ad relevance for a product is highest during goal-directed search, lower during exploratory search, and practically non-existent with consumers unaware of a product need. Product Involvement and Web Browsing Behavior Moe (2003) illustrates how useful matching ads to Web browsing behavior can be, and the complications associated with product involvement. Most products are low-involvement, attracting attention only during the pre-purchase search process (Bloch and Richins 983). Since pre-purchase search for these products generally ends in a purchase, the search process for low-involvement products has an immediate purchasing horizon. You read "Using Internet Behavior to Deliver Relevant Television Commercials" in category "Essay examples" But the risks associated with high-involvement products lead many consumers, especially product enthusiasts, to engage in ongoing search, to continuously update their knowledge or just for enjoyment (Richins and Bloch 1986). Examples of such products include automobiles, computers, and fashion items (see Table 2 later). A search for information about a high-involvement product may not end in a purchase, and often has a future urchasing horizon. Moe (2003) used two dimensions, low versus high ad relevance (explo ratory vs. goal-directed search) and low versus high involvement (immediate vs. future purchasing), in a 2 ? 2 matrix to define four Web browsing strategies used by Internet shoppers (Table 1). Moe (2003) categorized visitors to a real store’s Web site, which sold nutrition products such as vitamins, into these four strategies. Shoppers interested in a low-involvement product with an immediate purchasing horizon adopt a hedonic browsing strategy during exploratory search, and advertising has low relevance. They use the directed buying strategy during goal-directed search, and advertising has high relevance. Shoppers use the other two strategies for a high-involvement product with a future purchasing horizon. Advertising for high-involvement products should have relatively lower relevance for shoppers using the exploratory knowledge building strategy, compared to shoppers using the goal-directed search/ deliberation strategy. Table 1 also reports the average Web browsing time for these four strategies. These data suggest that long versus short Web browsing time can signal high ad relevance for low-involvement products. Directed buyers averaged over 36 minutes visiting the online store. In contrast, hedonic browsers spent one fifth as much time on the site, about seven minutes. Long versus short Web browsing time, however, may not signal high ad relevance for high-involvement products. First, average Web browsing time is nearly 3? times longer for high- rather than low-involvement products due to the ongoing nature of search for these products (Richins and Bloch 1986). Second, Moe’s (2003) data suggest that the opposite pattern of Web browsing times will indicate low versus high ad relevance for high-involvement products. In line with theory that predicts an inverse-U effect of product experience on search activity (Moorthy, Ratchford, and Talukdar 1997), knowledge-building shoppers (low ad relevance) recorded the longest Web browsing times, nearly two hours in a single session. Shoppers with a search/deliberation strategy (high ad relevance) and extensive category knowledge focus their search time on specific products or brands and record relatively shorter Web browsing times, about the same duration as directed buyers. Table 1 Influence of ad relevance and product involvement on Web browsing behavior. Product involvement Ad relevance Low (exploratory search) Low (immediate purchasing horizon) High (future purchasing horizon) High (goal-directed search) SHORT Hedonic browsing (6:41) LONG Knowledge building (111:47) LONG Directed buying (36:33) SHORT Search/ deliberation (37:59) NOTE—Adapted from Moe (2003). Numbers in parentheses are the average Web site browsing time for each of the four Internet shopping strategies (minutes:seconds). Please cite this article as: Steven Bellman, et al. , Using Internet Behavior to Deliver Relevant Television Commercials, Journal of Interactive Marketing (2013), http:// dx. doi. org/10. 1016/j. ntmar. 2012. 12. 001 S. Bellman et al. / Journal of Interactive Marketing xx (2013) xxx–xxx The next section uses this conceptual framework to propose four hypotheses about the effects of ad relevance, indicated by Web browsing behavior, on attention and ad exposure. Hypotheses Moderating Effect of Product Involvement According to the conceptual framework above, W eb browsing behavior can suggest ad relevance. A long time browsing information about a product indicates a consumer likely in goal-directed search for that product; brand advertising has high relevance, but only for low-involvement products. For highinvolvement products, Web browsing behavior is unrelated to ad relevance, or the opposite pattern, short rather than long Web browsing time, is likely to signal greater ad relevance. When advertising is relevant, that is, a consumer is in the goal-directed phase of product search, a TV commercial for that product should receive above average attention. When people pay attention to external stimuli, their heart rate goes down, most likely to minimize interference with information-intake (Lacey 1967). In other words, greater attention to relevant ads will associate with a decrease in heart rate. Ad relevance should also increase ad exposure, by reducing ad avoidance. As viewers may avoid TV commercials mechanically by channel-changing or fast-forwarding, addressable commercials interest TV advertisers as a method to combat ad avoidance. This ad exposure is better measured in viewing time, which conveys more information than a simple binary measure of ad avoidance (Gustafson and Siddarth 2007). Single-source data that match a household’s commercial viewing time to its purchase history suggests viewers are more likely to watch relevant ommercials, that is, commercials for products the household buys, as opposed to irrelevant commercials (Siddarth and Chattopadhyay 1998). A recent field trial found that addressable TV ads can reduce ad avoidance by 32% (Vascellaro 2011a). Less ad avoidance means longer viewing times for commercials, and therefore high ad relevance commercials will increase ad exposure. According to the conceptual model in Table 1, high versus low product involvement is likely to moderate the reliability of Web browsing time as an indicator of high versus low ad relevance, attention, and ad exposure. High involvement with a product is likely to translate into high interest in advertising by brands of that product during both exploratory and goal-directed search. For high-involvement products, therefore, TV commercials could have high ad relevance, attention, and ad exposure, whether or not Web browsing behavior has been recently observed. Furthermore, for high-involvement products, short rather than long Web browsing time could indicate relatively greater ad relevance. Consumers, however, are less likely to seek information online or offline about low-involvement products (Bloch and Richins 1983; Bloch, Sherrell and Ridgway 1986). This suggests that Web browsing for low-involvement products is highly valuable for behavioral targeting, as pre-purchase search for these products is for an immediate need (Moe 2003). For low-involvement products, Web browsing behavior should be a 3 highly reliable indicator of ad relevance, attention and ad exposure for TV commercials, but this will not be the case for high-involvement products. Thus, product involvement will moderate the effects of ad relevance indicated by Web browsing behavior: H1. Ad relevance based on Web browsing behavior will increase attention to commercials for low-, but not for high-involvement products. H2. Ad relevance based on Web browsing behavior will increase ad exposure to commercials for low-, but not for high-involvement products. Moderating Effect of Prior Brand Exposure Another variable likely to moderate addressability effects is prior exposure to advertising for a brand. Prior brand exposure reduces a commercial’s information value, even when that information is relevant (Campbell and Keller 2003; Pechmann and Stewart 1989). Prior exposure should therefore reduce a viewer’s willingness to pay attention to the commercial (Potter and Bolls 2012), or to choose ad exposure over ad avoidance (Bellman, Schweda, and Varan 2010; Woltman Elpers, Wedel, and Pieters 2003). Hypotheses 3 and 4 predict that prior brand exposure moderates the effects of ad relevance and involvement on attention and ad exposure: H3. Prior brand exposure reduces the effect of ad relevance on attention to commercials for low-involvement products. H4. Prior brand exposure reduces the effect of ad relevance on ad exposure to ommercials for low-involvement products. The next section describes the experiment to test these four hypotheses. Methodology Overview To test the concept of using Internet behavior to deliver relevant TV commercials, this experiment drew on two seemingly unrelated lab sessions. In the first lab session, each participant’s Web browsing behavior was analyzed to discover highly relevant products. In the seco nd lab session, this knowledge was used to individually customize the playlist of TV commercials shown to each participant. Sample and Design The experiment was a 2 ? 2 ? 2 mixed design. Prior brand xposure (yes/no) was a between-participants factor. The â€Å"yes† group saw Web banner ads in the first lab session, exposing them to visual aspects of the TV commercials for the same brands shown in the second lab session. All TV commercials were for U. S. brands unavailable in the test market, Australia, ensuring no prior brand exposure in the â€Å"no† group. Ad relevance (high/low) and Please cite this article as: Steven Bellman, et al. , Using Internet Behavior to Deliver Relevant Television Commercials, Journal of Interactive Marketing (2013), http:// dx. doi. org/10. 1016/j. intmar. 2012. 12. 001 4 S. Bellman et al. / Journal of Interactive Marketing xx (2013) xxx–xxx A. The home page for the six high-involvement product categories. B. The home page for a subcategory of high-involvement products: credit cards. Fig. 1. The Web site used to unobtrusively measure interest in 12 product categories. A. The home page for the six high-involvement product categories. B. The home page for a subcategory of high-involvement products: credit cards. Please cite this article as: Steven Bellman, et al. , Using Internet Behavior to Deliver Relevant Television Commercials, Journal of Interactive Marketing (2013), http:// dx. oi. org/10. 1016/j. intmar. 2012. 12. 001 S. Bellman et al. / Journal of Interactive Marketing xx (2013) xxx–xxx product involvement (high/low) were both within-participants factors for the TV commercials shown in the second lab session. A total of 211 members of an audience panel, representative of the Australian public, earned $30 (AUD) to participate in two la b sessions totaling 90 minutes. These participants were randomly assigned to the two between-participants groups (yes, prior brand exposure = 109, no = 102). Half the sample (49%) were women, and ages ranged from 19 to 78 years (M = 45, SD = 15). All had high levels of Internet experience (Venkatesh and Agarwal 2006). Careful procedures, such as describing the two lab sessions as separate studies, helped ensure that participants were unaware that their Web browsing behavior in the first lab session influenced the TV commercials served in the second lab session. Lab Session 1 In the first lab session, participants evaluated the fictitious â€Å"Consumer Choices† Web site (Fig. 1A), which displayed information about six high- and six low-involvement product categories, identified from published classifications (Kover and Abruzzo 1993; Ratchford 1987; Rossiter, Percy, and Donovan 991; Vaughn 1986). Each product category had three subcategories (Table 2). The five pages of content for each of these 36 subcategories were matched across products for depth, breadth and reading level to allow meaningful time-in-category comparisons. Participants had four minutes to explore the six highinvolvement categories, and another four m inutes to explore the six low-involvement categories (the order, high- or lowinvolvement first, was randomized). Browsing time in each category was logged. For each participant, the two product ategories (one high- and one low-involvement) browsed for the longest time were that participant’s two high ad relevance categories. The two corresponding low ad relevance categories (one high- and one low-involvement) were randomly selected from the participant’s categories with the shortest browsing times (e. g. , 0 seconds). For participants in the prior brand exposure group, banner advertisements were at the top of each page. In the no prior brand exposure group, a generic photo-montage of the same size occupied this ad space. Each of the 36 subcategories advertised a different brand. For each participant, one brand was chosen randomly to represent its subcategory across both stages of the experiment (e. g. , Capital One, Fig. 1B), from the two brands available for each subcategory, a total of 72. The duration of prior exposure to a brand was the time the participant spent viewing pages of content about the brand’s subcategory (i. e. , prior exposure was higher for high ad-relevance categories). Lab session 1 ended after participants completed an extensive online survey about the Web site’s usability (Agarwal and Venkatesh 2002; Venkatesh and Agarwal 2006). This survey reated a 20-minute delay, realistically replicating the process of identifying ad relevance based on Web browsing behavior, and subsequently delivering a set of customized commercials to a TV set-top box. 5 Lab Session 2 Participants went to a different laboratory for the second lab session, in which they evaluated new TV programs. Participants first verified their name and date of bir th displayed on the TV screen, to ensure no miss-targeting of the customized ads (Gal-Or et al. 2006). They then practiced using the TV remote control to select programs and mechanically avoid ads. Participants selected one of four new one-hour U. S. television programs—drama, comedy, reality or documentary—to evaluate for potential airing in Australia. They were told these programs had been recorded off-air in the U. S. , with ads included. This selection procedure successfully eliminated differences in program liking (Coulter 1998), which can affect advertising response (Norris, Colman, and Aleixo 2003). Each program had five ad breaks, with five 30-second ads in each break. The ads shown in the first four breaks were individually customized based on the ad relevance information discovered in the first lab session. The four test ads— for two high ad-relevance products (one high- and one low-involvement) and two low ad-relevance products (one high- and one low-involvement)—were counterbalanced across the first four breaks, always appearing in the middle position to avoid primacy and recency effects (Pieters and Bijmolt 1997). The remaining eight product categories each contributed two filler ads, the 16 required for the first four ad breaks. The fifth ad break, which always showed the same five filler ads, created a natural delay before measuring brand recall. While participants watched their chosen program, the two ependent variable measures were collected unobtrusively. Attention was heart rate decrease relative to each participant’s pre-program baseline heart rate (Potter and Bolls 2012). The slowest heart rate during a commercial—representing the peak of attention (Lang et al. 1993)—was subtracted from the participant’s slowest resting-baseline heart rate (Wainer 1991). Heart rate was measured via pulse photoplethysmography at two places: the lobule of the ear and the distal phalanx of the non-dominant hand’s ring finger. The signal, ear or finger, with the fewest artifacts (mainly caused by movement) was retained. Sixty-four participants (30% of 211, women = 47%, age range 19-75 yrs) consented to this procedure and yielded usable heart rate data. None of these participants was on medication that affects heart rate (Andreassi 2007). Thanks to an efficient mixed-level design, the size of this sub-sample was sufficient to test the two attention hypotheses with 99. 9% power (Faul et al. 2007). Ad exposure was the number of seconds that the commercial displayed on the screen before avoidance. Participants avoided ads by pressing the remote control’s skip button, which jumped to the next ad or program segment. In this experiment skipping was impossible during the program and during the first five seconds of each commercial, to ensure that each skip decision was on the merits of the ad rather than a general goal of avoiding all commercials. A matched sample (n = 81) confirmed that this procedure added a nonsignificant 1. 67 seconds of ad exposure, compared to participants able to skip at any time. Although previous studies have used ad viewing time to measure ad attention (Olney, Holbrook, and Batra 1991), in this study Please cite this article as: Steven Bellman, et al. Using Internet Behavior to Deliver Relevant Television Commercials, Journal of Interactive Marketing (2013), http:// dx. doi. org/10. 1016/j. intmar. 2012. 12. 001 S. Bellman et al. / Journal of Interactive Marketing xx (2013) xxx–xxx 6 Table 2 Product categories and subcategories. Involvement Category Subcategories High Automotive 1. Luxury Cars 2. Compact 4WDs 3. Sedans 4. Credit Cards 5. Financial Planning 6. Reta il Banking 7. Digital Televisions 8. Computers 9. Kitchen and Laundry Appliances 10. Jewellery 11. Casual Wear 12. Sportswear 13. Home Insurance 14. Automotive Insurance 15. Life Insurance 16. Deodorant 7. Hair Care 18. Allergy Medication 19. Hamburgers 20. Mexican Food 21. Chicken 22. Household Cleaners 23. Laundry Detergent 24. Cleaning Tools 25. Gardening 26. Tools 27. Pest Control 28. Chocolate Bars 29. Mints 30. Chewing Gum 31. Soft Drinks 32. Energy Drinks 33. Coffee 34. Frozen Meals 35. Packaged Meats 36. Desserts Financial Services Technology Fashion Apparel Insurance Health Well-Being Low Fast Food Home Cleansers Home Maintenance Candy Beverages Packaged Food NOTE—For every subcategory, two brands were available for selection (i. e. , 72 brands). attention and ad exposure were uncorrelated (r = ? 06, p = . 665), justifying the use of both measures. After watching the one-hour program, participants completed a second online survey on the same flat screen monitor used to watch the program. In line with the cover story for lab session 2, this survey began by measuring program liking (Coulter 1998; Cronbach’s alpha = . 96). The survey went on to measure manipulation checks of ad relevance and product involvement, and managerially relevant outcomes associated with greater attention and ad exposure (see the Appendix A). After completing this survey, participants were debriefed, hanked, and given their gift-card. products for which they were in the goal-directed search phase. This was confirmed by significant differences in self-reported purchasing horizon, measured in the post test (Table 3). Products classified as high ad-relevance, based on Web browsing time, were more likely to be used or purchased in the next month than those classified as low ad-relevance (Mlow ad-relevance = 3. 65 times per month vs. Mhigh ad-relevance = 6. 78). As predicted by the conceptual framework in Table 1, a significant two-way interaction between ad relevance a nd product involvement ualified this Internet-targeting main effect (Table 3). Using Web browsing time, ad relevance was inferred more accurately for low- rather than high-involvement products. For high-involvement products, purchase/usage was more likely for products inferred as low ad-relevance, based on Web browsing time (Mlow ad-relevance = . 20 times per month vs. Mhigh ad-relevance = . 10). Failure to observe Web browsing did not indicate low ad-relevance for high-involvement products, and as shown in Table 1, short rather than long Web browsing time could indicate relatively greater ad relevance. Also in line with Table 1, low-involvement products had a significantly shorter purchasing horizon compared to highinvolvement products (Mlow-involvement = 10. 28 times per month vs. Mhigh-involvement = . 15; Table 3). Product Involvement The manipulation of product involvement was also successful, measured by self-reported product involvement (Mlow-involvement = 4. 02 [on a 7-pt scale] vs. Mhigh-involvement = 4. 93, p b . 001, partial ? 2 = . 27), even without individual customization. No other effects were significant (e. g. , ad relevance: Mlow ad-relevance = 4. 40 vs. Mhigh ad-relevance = 4. 55, p = . 213, partial ? 2 = . 007). Table 3 ANOVA results. Effect Within-participants effects Ad relevance Product involvement Purchasing horizon (monthly frequency) Attention (heart rate decrease) Ad exposure (viewing time in seconds) 10. 08** (. 05) 122. 15*** (. 37) 10. 78** (. 05) 1. 26 (. 01) .19 (. 001) 1. 40 (. 01) 3. 67 †  (. 06) 1. 34 (. 02) 1. 64 (. 03) 2. 17 (. 03) .27 (. 004) 4. 64* (. 07) 7. 14** (. 03) 2. 42 (. 01) 1. 90 (. 01) .38 (. 002) 2. 47 (. 01) 1. 02 (. 005) .17 (. 001) 209 .01 (b . 001) 62 .56 (. 003) 209 Independent Variable Checks Ad relevance ? product involvement Ad relevance ? prior brand exposure Product involvement ? prior brand exposure Ad relevance ? product involvement ? prior brand exposure Between-participants effect Prior brand exposure via Web banner ads Error degrees of freedom Ad Relevance The validity of the ad relevance factor depends critically on whether participants spent more time in lab session 1 looking at NOTES—F ratios (hypothesis degrees of freedom = 1). Numbers in parentheses are effect sizes (partial ? 2): small = . 01, medium = . 06, large = . 14. Significant effects in bold. p = . 06, * p b . 05, ** p b . 01, *** p b . 001. Results Please cite this article as: Steven Bellman, et al. , Using Internet Behavior to Deliver Relevant Television Commercials, Journal of Interactive Marketing (2013), http:// dx. doi. org/10. 1016/j. intmar. 2012. 12. 001 S. Bellman et al. / Journal of Interactive Marketing xx (2013) xxx–xxx Fig. 2B shows that, in line with H1, ad relevance bas ed on Web browsing time increased attention to commercials for low-, but not for high-involvement products. Attention was measured by heart rate decrease (HRD): the greater the ecrease, the more attention to the commercial. But H1 was only partially supported, as this effect was significant only without prior brand exposure (H1 in Table 4), as predicted by H3 (see below). The effect of ad relevance on ads for low-involvement products generated a marginally significant main effect of ad relevance on attention (Tables 3 and 4). Similarly, planned contrasts (Winer 1991) showed that in line with H2, ad relevance based on Web browsing time increased ad exposure to commercials for low-, but not for high-involvement products (Fig. A and H2 in Table 4). Ad exposure was measured by ad viewing time: how much of an ad was seen before pressing the skip button. A longer ad viewing time means more ad exposure and less ad-avoidance. This effect delivered a significant effect of ad relevance even a fter collapsing across low- and high-involvement products (Table 3). Moderating Effects of Prior Brand Exposure: Hypotheses 3 and 4 The effect of ad relevance on attention to commercials for low-involvement products predicted by H1 was qualified by the significant three-way interaction predicted by H3, among ad elevance, product involvement and prior brand exposure (Table 3). Prior brand exposure reduced the effect of ad relevance on attention to commercials for low-involvement products, most likely because prior brand exposure reduced their information-value. After prior brand exposure, viewers paid equal attention to the test commercials, no matter what their ad relevance (Fig. 2B and H3 in Table 4). Prior brand exposure also reduced the effect of ad relevance on ad exposure to commercials for low-involvement products, as predicted by H4. After prior brand exposure, ad exposure Discussion This study tested the effectiveness of Internet-targeted TV advertising, using recent Web browsing to identify a household’s relevant TV commercials. The results suggest that this method of Internet-targeting significantly increases attention and ad exposure, even when based only on Web browsing behavior rather than search-engine keywords. These results echo similar field trials of addressable TV ads (Vascellaro 2011a) and single-source data (Siddarth and Chattopadhyay 1998), which have shown how ad relevance can increase TV ad exposure. However, these results also show that product nvolvement and prior brand exposure complicate Internettargeting of TV commercials. First, the overall effect of Internet-targeting on ad exposure in this study was due solely to its effect on commercials for A. No Prior Brand Exposure -5 Attention (heart rate decrease [bpm]) Effects of Ad Relevance: Hypotheses 1 and 2 was not significantly longer for high- versus low ad-relevance commercials for l ow-involvement products (Fig. 3B and H4 in Table 4). The results of the four hypothesis tests are summarized in Table 5. -6 -5. 84 -7 -8 -7. 88 -8. 43 -9 -9. 11 -10 Low Ad Relevance -11 High Ad Relevance -12 Low High Product Involvement B. Prior Brand Exposure -5 Attention (heart rate decrease [bpm]) Prior Brand Exposure Prior brand exposure, via Web banner ads, increased brand recall but not significantly (Mno = 4. 3% vs. Myes = 6. 8%, p = . 132, partial ? 2 = . 011). Prior brand exposure did, however, have a significant two-way interaction with ad relevance (p = . 017, partial ? 2 = . 027). When prior brand exposure was present, brand recall was significantly higher for high versus low ad-relevance TV commercials (Mlow ad-relevance = 3. 2% vs. Mhigh ad-relevance = 9. 6%, p = . 016, partial ? 2 = . 053). When prior brand exposure was absent, brand recall was not significantly different for high versus low ad-relevance commercials (Mlow ad-relevance = 5. 4% vs. Mhigh ad-relevance = 3. 9%, p = . 441, partial ? 2 = . 006). Since ad relevance was determined by Web browsing time, participants who recorded zero browsing times for their low ad-relevance categories had no prior brand exposure. No other effects were significant. In particular, prior brand exposure did not interact with product involvement, suggesting no differences in cognitive avoidance of Web banner ads in the first lab session for lowversus high-involvement products. -6 -7 -8 -7. 76 -8. 07 -7. 84 -8. 51 -9 -10 Low Ad Relevance -11 High Ad Relevance -12 Low High Product Involvement Fig. 2. The effects of ad relevance and product involvement on attention to TV commercials, measured by heart rate decrease, for the two prior brand exposure groups: (A) no prior brand exposure, and (B) prior brand exposure via Web banner ads. Pl ease cite this article as: Steven Bellman, et al. , Using Internet Behavior to Deliver Relevant Television Commercials, Journal of Interactive Marketing (2013), http:// dx. doi. org/10. 1016/j. intmar. 2012. 12. 001 S. Bellman et al. Journal of Interactive Marketing xx (2013) xxx–xxx 8 Table 4 Cell means. Low ad relevance Variable ? 7. 55†  Attention (heart rate decrease) No prior brand exposure Prior brand exposure Ad exposure (viewing time in seconds) No prior brand exposure Prior brand exposure High ad relevance Test Low product High product Low product High product involvement involvement involvement involvement H1 ? 6. 95 ? 7. 13x ? 5. 84x H3 ? 7. 96 ? 8. 07 H2 19. 99x 19. 18x ? 8. 32†  ? 8. 43 ? 8. 44 ? 8. 49x ? 9. 11x ? 7. 88 ? 7. 84 ? 8. 14 ? 7. 76 ? 8. 51 20. 79 21. 23x 21. 22x 21. 25 19. 48x 18. 79x H4 8. 14 ? 8. 19 20. 16 21. 01x 21. 70x 20. 33 20. 50 19. 58 21. 42 21. 46 20. 75 22. 17 NOTES—Means in the same row with the same superscript letters d iffer significantly (p b . 05) using planned contrast tests (except: †  p b . 06). which in turn increases ad liking (r = . 25, p b . 001). Although consumers have privacy concerns about targeted advertising (Spangler, Hartzel, and Gal-Or 2006), these concerns about Internet-targeted TV commercials could be alleviated if these commercials displayed the Digital Advertising Alliance’s Advertising Choices Icon and viewers could opt out from eceiving these commercials (youradchoices. com). For advertisers, these results support the concept of using Internet-targeting to reduce wastage in advertising budgets. Internet targeting also increases the effectiveness of TV commercials, by increasing ad exposure, which increases brand recall (r = . 14, p b . 05) and purchase intention (r = . 34, p b . 001). The results also show that Internet targeting is more critical for advertising low-involvement products, such as food, as opposed to high-involvement products like durables. Altho ugh changing the habitual nature of low-involvement onsumption is hard, commercials for low-involvement products may often suffer from bad timing. To combat this, many advertisers use continuous advertising (Ephron 1995), which is expensive and counterproductive by increasing prior brand exposure. Internet-targeting provides a way of continually monitoring household interest in low-involvement products, showing ads only when they are relevant and minimizing prior exposure. Relevance for habitual purchases, for which the A. No Prior Brand Exposure Implications Ad Exposure (ad viewing time [seconds]) 25 21. 70 20 0. 16 20. 33 18. 79 15 Low Ad 10 Relevance 5 High Ad Relevance 0 Low High Product Involvement B. Prior Brand Exposure Ad Exposure 30 (ad viewing time [seconds]) low-involvement products. But targeting-accuracy may not matter for high-involvement products, such as durables. Meta-analysis shows that advertising is more effective, on average, for durables rather than non-durable s (Sethuraman, Tellis, and Briesch 2011). Consumers often gather information about high-involvement products they are not planning to purchase immediately (Moe 2003; Richins and Bloch 1986). Commercials for high-involvement products attract consistently high levels of attention and ad viewing time, as sources of information during the ongoing search process for these products. For this reason, ad-relevance can be high for high-involvement products, whether or not Web browsing behavior is observed. Second, prior brand exposure reduces the information-value of advertising (Campbell and Keller 2003). Consumers pay less attention to TV commercials, evaluate them more negatively, and are more likely to avoid them (Bellman, Schweda, and Varan 2010; Woltman-Elpers, Wedel, and Pieters 2003). In this study, prior brand exposure dampens the effects of ad relevance and product involvement. Relevant commercials for low-involvement products receive more attention and ad exposure only when prior brand exposure is not present. 30 25 20 19. 58 20. 75 21. 42 22. 17 15 Low Ad 10 Relevance 5 High Ad Relevance 0 For consumers, the results of this study suggest that Internet targeting can improve their TV viewing experience. Internet targeting increases ad relevance, which means TV commercials are worth watching rather than avoiding. In this study, greater ad relevance due to Internet targeting increases ad exposure, Low High Product Involvement Fig. 3. The effects of ad relevance and product involvement on ad exposure, measured by ad viewing time for the two prior brand exposure groups: (A) no prior brand exposure, and (B) prior brand exposure via Web banner ads. Please cite this article as: Steven Bellman, et al. , Using Internet Behavior to Deliver Relevant Television Commercials, Journal of Interactive Marketing (2013), http:// dx. doi. org/10. 1016/j. intmar. 2012. 12. 001 S. Bellman et al. / Journal of Interactive Marketing xx (2013) xxx–xxx Table 5 Results of hypothesis tests. Hypothesis Accepted? H1. Ad relevance, based on Web browsing ehavior, will increase attention to commercials for low-, but not for high-involvement products. H2. Ad relevance, based on Web browsing behavior, will increase ad exposure to commercials for low-, but not for high-involvement products. H3. Prior brand exposure reduces the effect of ad relevance on attention to commercials for low-involvement products. H4. Pr ior brand exposure reduces the effect of ad relevance on ad exposure to commercials for low-involvement products. PARTIALLY (with no prior brand exposure) YES YES YES household does not search online, might be determined by knowledge of the household’s shopping cycle. For advertisers of high-involvement products, ad timing is less critical, and traditional databases derived from cable subscription data, or warranty cards, seem adequate for targeting. And advertising still plays a role outside the consumer search process, most importantly to create awareness and interest in new purchases (Vakratsas and Ambler 1999). Conclusions Limitations withstanding, this study demonstrates how Webbased targeting can deliver the right TV commercial to the right person, and at the right time. Timeliness is particularly important for low-involvement products, as their relevance may change aily or even hourly. Timely Internet activity data can help TV advertisers identify commercials that currently interest a consumer. Digital-targeting’s potential heightens as individuals and households increasingly add devices and applications for online multi-tasking (Pilotta and Schultz 2005). This article illustrates a viable technique to tempt marketing practitioners a nd academics, and fuel information privacy concerns. A framework for information privacy research builds on three broad dimensions: (1) multiple publics, (2) information channel developments, and (3) public responses to privacy ctions (Peltier, Milne, and Phelps 2009). Failure to address privacy concerns is one of several limitations to this study and a promising future research avenue. Limitations and Future Research Suggestions This study’s main limitation is customizing ad relevance individually rather than group-wise (Richins and Bloch 1986) in order to test the concept of Internet targeting. Individual differences provide alternative explanations and add noise to the observed ad relevance effect (Cook and Campbell 1979). Using over 30 product subcategories helps distribute this noise evenly. The procedure in this article resembles how Fazio et al. 1986) investigated attitude accessibility. In two experiments, they individually customized a list of 16 attitude objects on the 9 basis of each participant’s reaction times in a pretest, and validated this procedure in a third experiment by obtaining identical results using manipulated stimuli. Future experiments could use a similar procedure to manipulate ad relevance (Perkins and Forehand 2012). Another limitation is using Web-browsing rather than search-engine keywords to identify ad relevance. Parameters for the former were more feasible for a controlled experiment (e. g. only 72 commercials were needed). However, searchengine queries provide a more direct and accurate means of identifying the consumer’s stage in the search process (Rutz and Bucklin 2011). Future studies may find the benefits of using search-engine queries are greater (Langheinrich et al. 1999). Internet-based targeting for high-involvement products might be improved by using search-engine queries, and more sophisticated analysis of Web browsing behavior. For example, Cai, Feng, and Breiter (2004) identify travel sites as highly relevant when a visitor views pages conveying specific as pposed to general information. Moe (2006) demonstrates how clickstream data can be used to infer both the stage of the decision process and the decision rule, which together might help identify abnormally high ad relevance for highinvolvement products. This study used ad viewing time as a measure of ad exposure. But in other studies, especially field studies, the relationship between ad viewing time and effectiveness may not be positive (cf. Tse and Lee 2001). For example, Greene (1988) observed that an ad avoider in the field â€Å"has to really watch the set to see/know/perceive what she or he is doing nd ends up with more commercial exposure value† (p. 15). Future studies should attempt to replicate these findings in field trials. Also, ad exposure may have nonlinear threshold effects, 1 or be affected by differences between commercials (Woltman Elpers et al. 2003). A promising future research avenue is ex perimentally manipulating the content of ads (e. g. , Teixera, Wedel, and Pieters 2010), as well as their ad relevance. Ideally, other psychophysiological measures of attention (Potter and Bolls 2012) could have been used but in the current setting eart rate was the least invasive. The manipulation of prior brand exposure was too weak to generate a main effect on explicit memory, but did have a significant interaction effect. The explanation is most likely that prior brand exposure was manipulated by the presence of Web banner ads and these ads tend to be processed preattentively or cognitively avoided (Chatterjee 2008; Dreze and Hussherr 2003). Future studies could manipulate prior exposure using more attention-getting stimuli, such as brand integrations in Web site editorial. If Web banners are used, implicit measures 1 For example, brand recall may require a minimum ad exposure equal to 70% of an ad’s duration (21 s for a 30 s ad). To test for a non-linear threshold effect of ad exposure on brand recall, ad exposure was categorized into ? ve bins, 0–9 s, 10–15 s, 16–21 s, 22–25 s, and 26–30 s. This analysis revealed only a signi? cant linear trend (p b . 001, partial ? 2 = . 040) in the means for these bins: 0%, 1. 6%, 2. 5%, 3. 9%, 10. 5%. This result may have differed, however, if the study had measured message recall. The authors thank an anonymous reviewer for suggesting this analysis. Please cite this article as: Steven Bellman, et al. Using Internet Behavior to Deliver Relevant Television Commercials, Journal of Interactive Marketing (2013), http:// dx. doi. org/10. 1016/j. intmar. 2012. 12. 001 10 S. Bellman et al. / Journal of Interactive Marketing xx (2013) xxx–xxx of banner ad effectiveness could be used as manipulation checks (Perkins and Forehand 2012). A final limitation of this study is investigating the effect of targeting ads solely by interest in a product category. Future studies could examine the effects of other personalization strategies, such as interest in specific brands, programs, creative execution styles, and offers (Verhoef et al. 010). Each of these strategies merits evaluation and comparison in order to determine effective methods of targeting addressable TV advertising. Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank the editor and the two anonymous reviewers for their constructive feedback during the review process. The authors are also grateful to Adrian Duffell, Karl Dyktinski, Emily Fielder, Michael Gell, Shannon Longville, and a team of research assistants for their considerable help in conducting the experiment reported here. This research was funded by the sponsors of the Beyond: 30 project (www. beyond30. org). Appendix A. Manipulation-checks and other measures In addition to the two unobtrusive measures of attention and ad exposure collected during lab session 2, which were the main dependent variables, an online survey at the end of the second lab session collected self-report measures of manipulation checks and managerially relevant outcome measures. Except for product involvement (Mittal 1995; alpha = . 97), the survey used validated single-item measures (e. g. , ad liking; Bergkvist and Rossiter 2007). To accommodate the slightly different question wording required for each of the 72 brands, plus selecting only the articipant’s four test brands to ask questions about, the survey did not use a random order of questions, but the following fixed, minimally biasing order (Rossiter and Percy 1997). Brand recall (unaided correct brand recall = 1, else = 0) was measured after program liking. Purchase intention was measured next, using Juster’s (1966) 11-point scale for high-involvement prod ucts and Jamieson and Bass’s (1989) 5-point scale for low-involvement products. Ad liking was next, followed by product involvement, and finally purchasing horizon: purchase/usage frequency per month, measured by different 8-point scales for low- and igh-involvement products (low: â€Å"never† to â€Å"3 or more times a day†; high: â€Å"do not plan to purchase† to â€Å"within the next month†; Goldberg and Gorn 1987). 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Monday, April 27, 2020

Organizational Change Sony Corporation

Abstract Sony Corporation was not afraid to embrace change. In fact, the company was proactive when it comes to implementing change, hoping to guide a successful organization into the 21st century.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Organizational Change: Sony Corporation specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The moves made were radical considering the fact that the company’s core business was in manufacture of consumer electronics goods and yet it acquired Columbia Pictures and CBS Records. From the point of view of change management, the company leadership did everything right in securing the cooperation of various stakeholders even when it was clear to many that Sony was in uncharted waters. The acquisition of a movie company and a recording company was difficult to justify, however, Sony was able to pull it through. Finally, change was implemented but at the end Sony realized that the commitment to im plement change is not enough, it is also crucial to apply due diligence to figure out the long-term effect of a strategic move. Introduction In the decade of the 80’s and 90’s there was an electronic gadget that was ubiquitous from Tokyo to New York. It was none other than the Sony Walkman. At the same time household from Asia, Europe and America were entertained using a Sony Television set and the most popular model was the Sony Trinitron. The once humble and unknown Japanese electronics company has taken the world by storm and was one of the most profitable corporations in the 20th century.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They key to their success was innovation, specifically the creation of miniaturized and portable music machines as well as cutting-edge technology that powered their TV set. Music lovers used their Walkman to enjoy music whenever an d wherever they want to listen to their favorite songs. At the same time TV viewers were delighted with the picture quality of the company’s Sony Trinitron TV set. Needless to say, Sony became the undisputed leader in consumer electronics and was considered a savvy innovator with a knack for knowing what the people really wanted when it comes to consumer electronic goods (Nathan, 1999, p.10). However, change management was not the strongest suit of the company’s corporate leaders during the latter part of the 20th century. It was difficult to change something that was profitable for a long time. The corporate leaders at Sony made the decision to expand its presence in the United States and set their sights on the U.S. entertainment industry. The company tried to change but the attempt failed (Tabuchi, 2012). The corporate leaders and major investors at the Sony Corporation must think long and hard on how to implement an effective change management program that could he lp the company succeed in the 21st century. Literature Review Sony was a small Japanese firm when it started but after a few decades, it became a household name due to its innovative electronic products. Phenomenal is the best word to describe the impact of the Sony Walkman and the Sony Trinitron TV.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Organizational Change: Sony Corporation specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company was a leader when it comes to revenue, innovation, and mass appeal. Sony endeared itself to countless millions around the world with a parade of electronic products that are both cutting edge and practical (Nathan, 1999). The company charged ahead and made daring moves to expand its manufacturing capability to meet soaring demand. Sony Corporation decided to expand and trained its sights on the lucrative U.S. entertainment industry. The decision to buy a film studio was a major leap for the e lectronics company. The move could be considered as an extreme example of integration wherein one company tries to control every aspect of the business. For example, a restaurant purchased a farm so that everything that it needs in the kitchen is sourced from this farm. Nonetheless, it does not require an expert in business management to know that this type of integration does not work all the time. Most of the time it is best to work with suppliers; for instance, manufacturing firms buy components from other firms. In the case of Sony the purchase of a movie company cannot be considered integration because there is a huge divide between a television set and the movies that are viewed through it. The business decision was mind boggling because the acquisition of Columbia Pictures is not even remotely related to the electronics business. However, corporate leaders of the company believed it was the right move. Richard Lynch explained their decision through this remark: â€Å"The str ategic logic here was that of developing a vertically integrated company – from the service that develops the pictures and music to the machines that deliver them in individual’s homes† (2006, p.207).Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Richard Lynch’s explanation made sense however, it is difficult to comprehend how vertical integration could be achieved because those who purchased Sony Trinitron TV are not compelled to buy movies that were produced by Columbia Pictures. Therefore, when Sony purchased Columbia it was a business transaction that benefited Columbia Pictures but it did nothing to improve the sales of Sony’s electronic products. Fig.1. Financial Year 2012 Results by Segment (Sony Group, 2013). Consider for instance the original name of the company; it was called the Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering Corporation. Therefore, Ibuka and other pioneers laid the business framework that future leaders should follow. It was a statement that the identity of the organization was bound up in technology and hardware. However, decades later, Sony was in the business of making movies. In order to have a clear picture on how far the company has deviated from its core business, consider the informat ion gleaned from a case study of Sony Corporation, specifically the circumstances that surrounded the deal to acquire Columbia Pictures: On September 24, 1989, Sony †¦ bid $3.4 billion in cash for Columbia Pictures Entertainment Inc. It was the highest bid ever by a Japanese company for any U.S. property. In addition to the cash price, the Japanese electronics giant assumed nearly $2 billion in debt and contractual obligations (Spar, 2003, p. 368). Aside from Columbia Pictures, Sony also invested in the purchase of CBS Records. All of a sudden Richard Lynch’s explanation made sense, Sony wanted to produce the music that people would listen to with their Walkman. Immediately after the acquisition of the said movie company and the music recording company, the financial situation at Sony began to change from bad to worse. In the early part of the 1990s, problems began to crop up, specifically in relation to the acquisition of CBS Records and Columbia Pictures. Consider the highlights below (Spar, 2003, p. 378): 1990 – Columbia Pictures Entertainment suffered negative cash flow 1991 – the combined cash flow of Sony Pictures and Sony Music turned negative 1992 – In the third quarter alone, announced a 37% decline in operating income 1993 – The film Last Action Hero a $60 million production, bombed at the box office It did not take long before the executives and shareholders realized that the creation of Sony Music and Sony Pictures was an ill-advised move. The negative cash flow and the failure to realize their objectives were unacceptable to the shareholders and therefore a major change needed to be initiated in order to bring back Sony Corporation to the top of the list of the most profitable company in the world. The changes that were made right after the dismal performance of the company shook the foundation of Sony. In fact the core leadership and most probably the board of directors were compelled to hire an American to become the company’s first ever CEO. Several years later a commentary was written with regards to the historic move, â€Å"Sony Corporation of Japan did something almost unheard of in Japanese business circles. It appointed a Welsh-born American citizen as head of the Japanese company† (Lynch, 2006, p. 107). A message was sent and it reverberated all over the world. Michiyo Nakamoto, made the revelation that the crisis surfaced as early as April of 2003 and she added that at the same year, â€Å"†¦Sony revealed a sharp deterioration in its electronics business and weak mobile phone sales. It launched a costly overhaul to regain its competitive edge. Yet barely halfway through that three year exercise Sony is again faltering† (2005). Richard Lynch on the other hand made a complimentary analysis that supported Nakamoto’s observation and he wrote that Sony’s woes could be the result of the following: a) threat from low-wage labor manufacturing and b) shifting away from innovative products e.g. liquid crystal display (LCD) screens (20006, p. 108). It was made clear that the former CEOs of Sony dreamt of making a great deal of money by venturing into the entertainment industry while at the same time prodded the other half of the company to manufacture and sell consumer electronic goods. The juggling act did not work and there was no evidence to show that the firm accomplished vertical integration. The company that was once known for its innovative technology made wrong assumptions when it comes to the future of music and TV technology. Thus, the company was caught flat-footed in the fast transition to new technologies. Therefore, â€Å"Sony, which had not invested in manufacturing LCD panels, was forced to buy them from competitors† (Nakamoto, 2005, p.12). This episode in Sony’s history helps explain the sudden rise to prominence of a Korean electronics company called Samsung. Needless to say, it was late in the game when the company realized that it was betting on the wrong technology. Their problems could be traced back to the day they purchased Columbia Pictures and CBS Records. The rush to consolidate in the guise of vertical integration was a major blunder in company history. For example, CBS Records was in the business of producing music and therefore, it placed the company in bind because it could not invest in a technology that could store music in a digital format. During that time no one knew how to handle the thorny issue of copyright infringement and digital music files. In fact, Sony’s corporate leaders were adamant to â€Å"discourage the electronics division from marketing a portable player that could download music from the Internet† (Nakamoto, 2005, p.14). It was also the same time period when the Steve Jobs and his team were poised to change the world with their Ipod. Sony had the resources and the technological capabilities to develop a device similar to iPod, however, all plans related to its development were considered taboo because of CBS Records. It is important to point out that two major changes were made in the latter part of the 20th century. First, there was a rush to create vertical integration and second, there was the radical move to hire an American CEO to drastically alter the fortunes of the ailing company. However, it is also important to point out the theoretical frameworks needed to understand the change process. There are at least four major categories of change and these are: 1) Evolutionary; 2) Dialectics; 3) Life Cycle; and Teleological. Evolutionary change is a continuous cycle of variation, retention, and selection that could result in gradual or radical change (Sengupta Bhattacharya, 2006, p.5). The dialectic theory of change on the other hand talks about the â€Å"existence in a pluralistic world of ambiguous and contradictory forces and values that compete with one another to get control over the others † (Sengupta Bhattacharya, 2006, p.5). However, the life cycle theory of change proposes that there is a â€Å"linear and irreversible sequence of prescribed stages, which facilitates organization to move from the point of departure towards an end,† (Sengupta Bhattacharya, 2006, p.5). Finally, the teleological theory talks about the company’s â€Å"interaction with the external and internal construct and its effort to reach the defined goals† (Sengupta Bhattacharya, 2006, p.5). It is important to point out that the change made at Sony Corporation is described more effectively using a combination of the dialectics and teleological theory of change. Fig.2. Sony Corporation’s Net Income 2008-2012 (Statista, 2012). Analysis of the Research Findings There were two major changes made in the latter part of the 20th century. First, Sony decided to expand and acquired CBS Records and Columbia Pictures. It could be argued that the dialectics and teleologic al theory of change is applicable in this instance. With regards to the dialectics theory, the company was pressured to expand because at that time the company needed to sustain its growth. With funds at its disposable due to the phenomenal success of Sony Walkman and Sony Trinitron, the organization needed to invest in something that would ensure long-term growth. In the dialectics framework there is pressure from competing forces and it could be argue that during this period Sony was wary of its rivals within the consumer electronics industry. Thus, there was the need to take the first step and there was the pressure to break away from the pack and take the lead in the race. The teleological framework is also applicable in this instance because the company made goals to increase its profitability and ensure its position as the best consumer electronics company in the world. Thus, the company decided that there is no other way to do it other than to increase its efficiency by creat ing synergy with other companies or other business partners. The decision was to establish vertical integration. The stakeholders involved were the corporate leaders at Sony Corporation, CBS Records, and Columbia Picture. The other major stakeholders were the shareholders of the respective companies as well as the employees and customers of the three organizations. With regards to the first major change that was made, the company must be commended when it comes to the preparation made and the actual activities that were geared towards making the change. The major stakeholders were aware of the decision and they fully supported the move. The integration of CBS Records and Columbia Pictures into Sony Corporation was completed without a major glitch. The change process was completed, however, this case study points out another major component of change and that is the decision-making process that was made prior to the goal of creating vertical integration. In the long run it was proven to be a costly mistake. It is important to point out that the changes that were made were not the result of a life cycle process. In other words, it was not something that the leaders considered as inevitable. They made radical changes to the company because of the perception of competing forces and the fear of obsolescence. In other words the company was eager to stay relevant and was more than eager to sustain its phenomenal growth. It is acceptable to make the conclusion that the company overreached and tried to do something that the organization was not built to handle. The second major change was to overhaul the company’s management process by hiring an outsider. Needless to say it was not easy to get a unanimous vote to hire an American CEO. An overview of Japanese history and culture, as well as an in-depth look at their management techniques would reveal that the Japanese people are almost fanatical in the way they value loyalty and raising up leaders and managers fr om the ground up. Hiring an outsider who did not have a deep understanding of the company’s history was not a popular choice. However, the decision was made to deal with consequences of the Columbia Pictures and CBS Records fiasco. The hiring of an American CEO is not an example of a life cycle type of change. In other words, it was not part of the natural growth and development of the company to hire an American business leader. Thus, the change that was made was totally out of character. The change framework applicable is dialectics and teleological because the company responded to external pressure and made the decision to change. The decision to hire an American CEO did not result in radical changes, such as, the sale of Sony Pictures and Sony Music. It could be argued that the purpose of the hiring may have been to appease investors and to show stakeholders that Sony was trying its best to mitigate the impact of the decision to acquire two companies that struggled to mak e a profit. Conclusion and Recommendation The financial and business related problems of Sony Corporation are important reminders that organizational transformation must be top priority of the company. The phenomenal growth of the company from a fledgling electronics consumer company in Japan to a world-leader in miniaturized music equipment to cutting-edge TV technology and its near collapse is proof that change must be constant. It is therefore critical to understand the nature of change. Thus, business leaders must be grateful that thinkers and analysts were able to determine four broad categories of change management frameworks. Although there four major frameworks only two are applicable in the case of Sony’s change management process. The dialectical and teleological frameworks could explain why Sony was compelled to make changes. These two frameworks focused on external and internal forces that created pressure for a firm to make the necessary changes to adapt. As a co nsequence Sony Corporation was compelled to make radical changes. It is therefore imperative to point out that Sony did not wait for changes in the outside world to overtake them and render the organization obsolete. In fact, the company adopted a more proactive approach. Other companies fail to embrace change. Sony did not fear change, however, the change management process that they adopted required a second look. The turning point was the decision to adopt vertical integration. Without a doubt leaders of various industries believe in the importance of vertical integration. The purpose of vertical integration is to create a more cost-efficient operation. Moreover, the strategy was also implemented to significantly increase Sony’s market share when it comes to their portable music devices. It is not clear however, how the leaders were able to connect a music recording company to a portable music device like Sony’s Walkman. It is difficult to understand how someone cou ld make the assumption that the purchase of Sony equipment would compel consumers to buy files, data, or software from the same organization. For example, a car manufacturer is not expected to create their own tires because consumers have the freedom to choose the best brand. There are so many things to consider when it comes to the purchase of ancillary items. Consumers base their decision on price, quality, and even the convenience of purchasing a particular item. The justification to acquire CBS Records on the pretext of vertical integration requires a stretch of the imagination. However, there seems to be no justification for the purchase of Columbia Pictures because Sony’s Trinitron does not operate using film from the movie studio. Therefore, it is hard to understand where vertical integration could be inserted in this particular business deal. Executives at Sony must realize that the eagerness to anticipate change and the commitment to change are not enough to succeed. It is important to pursue due diligence in thinking through the decision process. For instance, the two companies struggled with billions of dollars in debts. Secondly, there was no clear plan how Sony could transform a financial liability like Columbia Pictures into a cash cow. Furthermore, they purchased CBS Records at a time when music studios were losing money because of digital music files. Sony Corporation must also reconsider how the company interpreted vertical integration. Even a small business firm understands that it is not prudent to integrate everything into the company’s supply chain. It is best to focus on their strengths and establish business partnerships to help them deal with their weaknesses. The change process must not only focus on the need to change in the present time, it must also focus on the long-term and immediate effects of the changes that were made. A comprehensive feasibility study should have been included in the change management process. Fi nally, Sony should rediscover its roots and remember that the company rose to prominence because of innovation and not the acquisition of other companies. References Lynch, R 2006, Shaking up Sony: restoring the profits and the innovative fire, Indiana University Press, Indiana. Nakamoto, M 2005, Caught in its own trap: Sony battle to make headway  in the networked world, Financial Times, London. Nathan, J 1999, Sony: the private life, Houghton Mifflin Company, New York. Sengupta, N, Bhattacharya, M 2006, Managing change in organizations, New Jersey, Prentice Hall. Sony Group, 2013, Financial year 2012 results by segment. Web. Spar, D 2003, Managing international trade and investment, Imperial College Press, London. Statista 2012, Sony’s net income from 2008 to 2012 (in 100 million Japanese Yen/million U.S. dollars). Web. Tabuchi, H 2012, Sony revises expected loss to $6.4 billion. Web. This research paper on Organizational Change: Sony Corporation was written and submitted by user Jesse Delaney to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Free Essays on Welfare Mothers

In the article â€Å"Incarcerated Mothers† a lot of valid points and strong arguments are made. We learn in the beginning of the article that majority of the women in prison are mothers, and their needs are often neglected. Women’s healthcare needs and services are often ignored compared to male inmates. Majority of women mothers take care of themselves and abide by the rules simply to get out of prison as soon as possible so that they can see their children. Would it be a different case if we were discussing fatherhood? Yes, I think it would. For instance, incarcerated males receive many of the necessary services, such as, medical, dental, recreational, vocational, and educational services. However, does the male population of inmates deserve to have these benefits? I think that the men take advantage of these benefits. I do not think the main thing on their mind is getting out of prison to see their children. Many of them may not even know they have kids, they may be in jail for sexual abuse and therefore not care about their offspring. For instance, on page 262 the given quote is saying that men get in trouble for more harsh things, they try to escape, they don’t wear the proper clothes that they are supposed to, they get in fights with one another, and are rowdy compared to the women who abide by the rules and are quite so that they can go home and see their families. Clearly, if men are acting in such a manner then they are not concerned about acting properly in prison so that they can get out and get back to their families. Fathers in prison don’t necessarily have to prove themselves worthy of fatherhood, they don’t have to prove competency. Where as mothers have to prove this without expecting support for their mothering role. It is terrible to see that men don’t have to work as hard to get out to see their children. Both genders should have to equally prove themselves worthy of being a parent rather than t... Free Essays on Welfare Mothers Free Essays on Welfare Mothers In the article â€Å"Incarcerated Mothers† a lot of valid points and strong arguments are made. We learn in the beginning of the article that majority of the women in prison are mothers, and their needs are often neglected. Women’s healthcare needs and services are often ignored compared to male inmates. Majority of women mothers take care of themselves and abide by the rules simply to get out of prison as soon as possible so that they can see their children. Would it be a different case if we were discussing fatherhood? Yes, I think it would. For instance, incarcerated males receive many of the necessary services, such as, medical, dental, recreational, vocational, and educational services. However, does the male population of inmates deserve to have these benefits? I think that the men take advantage of these benefits. I do not think the main thing on their mind is getting out of prison to see their children. Many of them may not even know they have kids, they may be in jail for sexual abuse and therefore not care about their offspring. For instance, on page 262 the given quote is saying that men get in trouble for more harsh things, they try to escape, they don’t wear the proper clothes that they are supposed to, they get in fights with one another, and are rowdy compared to the women who abide by the rules and are quite so that they can go home and see their families. Clearly, if men are acting in such a manner then they are not concerned about acting properly in prison so that they can get out and get back to their families. Fathers in prison don’t necessarily have to prove themselves worthy of fatherhood, they don’t have to prove competency. Where as mothers have to prove this without expecting support for their mothering role. It is terrible to see that men don’t have to work as hard to get out to see their children. Both genders should have to equally prove themselves worthy of being a parent rather than t...